Thư viện Kiến thức
Ngành điện ở Việt Nam
1. Electricity development in Vietnam
1.1 Electricity consumption & demand
The overall power consumption in Vietnam is continued to rise rapidly over the years fueling the socio-economic development of the country. This growth is in line with the country’s industrialization and integration into the global economy after the 1986 market reforms.
Regarding the consumption structure, by using 38 % of the total final energy consumption in 2012 (54,028 ktoe), the industrial sector had the biggest share, while residential sector had 31% and the transport sector accounted for 21%. Commercial and public services as well as agriculture and forestry only accounted for a subordinate share.
(see Figure 1)
Figure 1: Development of Primary Energy Supply and Final Consumption by Sector
Source: illustrations based on World Bank (2015B); IEA (2015)2011-2015 and then slow down to 11.15% per year in the period 2016-2020 and 7.4 – 8.4% per year in 2021-2030.
1.2. Electricity generation
Over the past years, the annual electricity production increased more than tenfold, from 8.6 TWh in 1990 to 164.31 TWh in 2015 . The annual increase in this period was between 12-15%, which was almost as twice as the growth rate of the GDP. Hydropower, natural gas and coal are the most important primary energy sources for electricity production. In 2015, out of the energy source coal accounted for the largest share, at 34.4%, followed by hydropower, at 30.4% and gas, at 30.0%. Apart from hydropower, renewable energies accounted for only a minor part (3.7%).
Figure 2: Electricity Production and Installed Capacity 2015 by Generation Technology
Source: illustration based on EVN (2015A); and numbers provided by the IoE (2016)
In the revised National Development Plan VII (the revised PDP 7), which was approved by the Prime Minister on March 18th 2016, the average GDP growth rate is predicted to be at 7% during the period of 2016-2030. In order to satisfy the domestic electricity demand, the revised PDP 7 sets a target for commercial electricity to reach 235-245 billion kWh in 2020; 352-379 billion kWh in 2025; 506-559 billion kWh in 2030. The targets for electricity production and import are 265-278 billion kWh in 2020; 400-431 billion kWh in 2025; and 572-632 billion kWh in 2030.
According to the revised PDP7, coal will be the most significant source of power for the period 2020-2030, taking up to 42.7% in 2020; 49.3% in 2025 and 42.6% in 2030. The structure of power source is illustrated in figure 3.
2. Renewable energy
Overall the development of RE in Viet Nam is at a very early stage. If, however, hydropower is taken into account, the share of renewables consumption reached over 37% in 2014. Nevertheless, one should bear in mind that this high share in Viet Nam is almost exclusively based on the energy produced from large-scale hydro plants. The two biggest hydropower plants, Son La (2,400 MW, 2012 completed) and Hoa Binh (1,920 MW, 1992 completed), solely have a significant share in the production of electricity in Viet Nam. However, without hydropower the installed capacity of renewables in 2014 totalled up nothing but 210 MW.
Table 1: Installed Renewable Energy Capacity, December 2014
Source: Data provided by the Institute of Energy In the revised PDP 7, renewable energy (wind energy, solar energy, and bioenergy) will be prioritized. Renewables targets for 2020, 2025 and 2030 are set to have a share of electricity production equals 6.5% in 2020; 6.9% in 2025 and 20.7% in 2030 (figure 4).
Figure 4: Renewables targets for 2020, 2025 and 2030.
Source: Revised National Power Development Plan VII
3. Electricity market
Viet Nam’s energy sector is dominated by big state-owned-enterprises (SOE) and therefore mainly controlled by the government through the Ministry of Industry and Trade. The integrated state-owned utility Electricity of Viet Nam (EVN) dominates the Vietnamese generation market. Furthermore, it holds a monopolistic responsibility for transmission, distribution and system operation The remaining shares of the generation capacities are held by other big SOEs, e.g. PetroVietnam (gas fired power plants) or Vinacomin (coal fired power plants), foreign investors mostly using a “Build-Own-Transfer” (BOT) model, and other domestic investors using an independent power plant (IPP)-model Generated electricity from IPPs is sold to EVN under long term contracts.
Viet Nam plans to develop a competition based electricity market. A prime minister decision in 2013 underlined and confirmed the deregulation processes starting in 2005. The deregulation process should proceed in three phases and be completed in 2023:
• Competitive power generation market (end of the year 2014)
• Pilot competitive power wholesale market (2015-2016)
• Fully competitive power wholesale market(2017-2021)
• Pilot competitive retail market (2021-2023)
• Fully competitive power retail market (after 2023)
4. National grid
Vietnam power system is being operated at high voltage of 500kV, 220kV and 110kV and medium voltage of 35kV to 6kV. It is integrated by the 500kV transmission network, which is managed and operated by EVN’s National Transmission Power Corporation (NTC). The power transmission line of 500KV and 220kV are managed by the NTC while the line of 110kV, 35kV and 6kV are managed by regional power utilities.
To satisfy the country’s future electricity demand, Vietnam plans to expand its national grid in the future. The national plan aims to develop additional transmission lines which go hand in hand with the power plants developed in order to achieve the overall effectiveness of investment, satisfy the provincial power supply plans, improve reliabilities of the power supply system and utilize efficiently the power sources developed, support rural electrification programs, and robustly prepare for future development of the power system.
 IEA (2015)
 World Bank (2015A)
 EVN (2015A), IoE (2016)
 EVN (2015B)
 EVN (2015A)
 Decision Nr. 63/2013/QD-TTg